2D-CellVision

Polarity, Protrusion–Retraction Dynamics and Their Interplay during Keratinocyte Cell Migration

Keratinocyte migration on a two-dimensional substrate can be split into four distinct phases: cell extension, attachment, contraction, and detachment. It is preceded by polarization of the cell which leads to a functional asymmetry observable by the formation of a leading lamella. In this work variation of fibronectin coating concentrations and competitive inhibition with RGD peptides are used to investigate the dependency of polarization, migration, lamella dynamics, and ruffling on substrate adhesiveness. Looking at migrating human epidermal keratinocytes with a welldefined polarity we find that a fibronectin-coating concentration of 10 mg/cm2 stimulates migration and ruffling speed twofold, whereas protrusion speed increases only by 20% (compared to 2.5 mg/cm2 fibronectin). Nonpolar cells show a constant migration and ruffling speed independent of the amount of fibronectin. In contrast protrusion speeds of polar and nonpolar cells are equal. Treatment of cells on 10 mg/cm2 fibronectin with 1 mg/ml GRGDS reduces the characteristic migration, protrusion, and ruffling speed of polar cells which corresponds to lowering the effective coating concentration to under 5 mg/cm2. The probability of being polarized (quantified by a polarity index) increases with increasing fibronectin concentration. However, addition of soluble RGD on 10 mg/cm2 fibronectin does not simply reduce the polarity index like one would expect from the corresponding changes in the other motility parameters, but it remains unchanged.
Keratinocyte on fibronectin
Keratinocyte on fibronectin
Polar migrating cells are characterised by a distinct leading lamella.